Bahasa Indonesia is like English. It has two forms in sentence : active and passive voice.
Active form in English : S+V+O (+complement)
Passive form in English : O+to be+V3+by S
If we want to change active form into passive form, we need little alteration like we put Object at the beginning of sentence and Subject at the end of sentence. Then, we also give to be before V3 in passive voice. How about bahasa Indonesia? We have prefix that can help us to make a sentence. But, it’s different with English. English also has prefixes, right? Prefixes in English often use to give a negative meaning such as invisible, disappear, underestimate, etc. In bahasa Indonesia, there are many prefixes put in front of the verb or another parts of speech. The meaning of prefix in bahasa Indonesia is awalan. To make a passive voice, we usually use prefix like this : “di”. Firstly, I’ll give some examples for prefixes used in bahasa Indonesia :
“Me-“ : memakan (eat), menari (dance), menyapu (sweep)
“Di-“ : dimakan (to be+eaten), disapu (to be+swept)
“Ter-“ : tertinggi (the highest), tercantik (the most beautiful)
“Ke-“ : ketiga (the third), ketua (chairman)
From those examples, what is the conclusion? Can you conclude the meaning of every prefix? So, they don’t have the same meaning. Is it different with English, isn’t it? It doen’t give negative meaning like English. Prefix “di” is usually used in passive form. The structure of active and passive voice in bahasa Indonesia is like English.
Active form: S(Subjek)+V(Predikat)+O(Objek) (+complement(tambahan))
Passive form : O(Objek)+ prefix “di” +V(Predikat)+ S(Subjek)
Let’s make the sentences :
E : Susi sweeps the room everyday / I : Susi menyapu ruangan setiap hari
E : The room is swept by Susi everyday / I : Ruangan disapu (oleh) Susi setiap hari
E : I don’t water my sister’s flower / I : Saya tidak menyiram bunga kakak saya
E : My sister’s flower is not watered by me / I : Bunga kakak saya tidak disiram (oleh) saya
What is the main problem in active and passive voice? Look at the verb in both of the sentences. At the first sentence, we have “menyapu” in active form and “disapu” in passive form. Both of the words come from the noun getting prefix. From the noun “sapu” becomes the verb “menyapu” if it gets prefix “me” (me+sapu=menyapu). From the noun “sapu” becomes the verb “disapu” if it gets prefix “di” (di+sapu=disapu). May be, you are still confuse why the noun “sapu” that gets prefix “me” can’t become the verb “mesapu”. If we compare it with passive verb “disapu”, it is just added directly “ di+sapu=disapu”. Why can’t we add like that? The answer is the rules. We have some rules if we want to make a verb from another part of speech. But, I won’t explain the rules in this article now. May be, I’ll explain it another day. You can look at the dictionary, it can help you. So, the active verb “menyapu” is not added directly like the passive verb “disapu”. At the second sentence, we have the verb “menyiram”. It comes from the verb “siram” becomes “menyiram (me+siram)” and “disiram (di+siram)”. I guess you have known how to make passive verb in this sentence, just add prefix “di-“ before the word “siram”. But, we have little problem here. Exactly the word “siram” is the active verb. Why do we add prefix “me” in front of it? Why don’t we just use it in the sentence?Is it active verb, isn’t? Why can’t we say : “saya tidak siram bunga kakak saya”? This word usually is used when we give order to somebody. Example : “Siram bunga itu!”. It means you want someone to water the flower. So, it doesn’t use at sentence that we want to make.
Sometimes, we need a combination between prefix and suffix to make an active or passive verb. For example :
E : Budi blames Tia / I : Budi menyalahkan Tia
E : Tia is blamed by Budi / I : Tia disalahkan oleh Budi
Look at the verb “ menyalahkan” and “disalahkan”. They come from the noun “salah” that gets prefix and suffix. “Menyalahkan” comes from “me+salah+kan”, meanwhile “disalahkan” comes from “ di+salah+kan”. We don’t say “menyalah” or “disalah”. It’s not available in bahasa Indonesia. I’ll give another sentence :
Dita does herjob with me / Dita melakukan pekerjaannya dengan saya.
Herjob is done by Dita with me / Pekerjaannya dilakukan Dita dengan saya.
So, we have some special words that get both prefix and suffix. Actually, there are many words like that. The dictionary can help you to identify what they are. You have just to remember the structure of active and passive voice. Passive voice get prefix “di-“ to make passive verb and active voice get prefix “me-“ to make active verb. But, active verb can have another form like bermain (play). If I have these sentences :
Dia bermain di taman.
Dia mempermainkan rambut saya.
Which one is the correct sentence? The answer is both of them. At the first sentence, “bermain” means plays. At the second sentence, “mempermainkan” means making a fool. They are different, aren’t they? Don’t be confuse. Just look at the dictionary, it is more helpful.